Obesity - Diagnosis and treatment (2023)


To diagnose obesity, your doctor will typically perform a physical exam and recommend some tests.

These exams and tests generally include:

  • Taking your health history.Your doctor may review your weight history, weight-loss efforts, physical activity and exercise habits, eating patterns and appetite control, what other conditions you've had, medications, stress levels, and other issues about your health. Your doctor may also review your family's health history to see if you may be predisposed to certain conditions.
  • A general physical exam.This includes measuring your height; checking vital signs, such as heart rate, blood pressure and temperature; listening to your heart and lungs; and examining your abdomen.
  • Calculating yourBMI.Your doctor will check your body mass index (BMI). ABMIof 30 or higher is considered obesity. Numbers higher than 30 increase health risks even more. YourBMIshould be checked at least once a year because it can help determine your overall health risks and what treatments may be appropriate.
  • Measuring your waist circumference.Fat stored around the waist, sometimes called visceral fat or abdominal fat, may further increase the risk of heart disease and diabetes. Women with a waist measurement (circumference) of more than 35 inches (89 centimeters) and men with a waist measurement of more than 40 inches (102 centimeters) may have more health risks than do people with smaller waist measurements. Like theBMImeasurement, waist circumference should be checked at least once a year.
  • Checking for other health problems.If you have known health problems, your doctor will evaluate them. Your doctor will also check for other possible health problems, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, underactive thyroid, liver problems and diabetes.

Gathering this information will help you and your doctor choose the type of treatment that will work best for you.

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The goal of obesity treatment is to reach and stay at a healthy weight. This improves overall health and lowers the risk of developing complications related to obesity.

(Video) Obesity, Causes, SIgns and Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment.

You may need to work with a team of health professionals — including a dietitian, behavioral counselor or an obesity specialist — to help you understand and make changes in your eating and activity habits.

The initial treatment goal is usually a modest weight loss — 5% to 10% of your total weight. That means that if you weigh 200 pounds (91 kilograms), you'd need to lose only about 10 to 20 pounds (4.5 to 9 kilograms) for your health to begin to improve. However, the more weight you lose, the greater the benefits.

All weight-loss programs require changes in your eating habits and increased physical activity. The treatment methods that are right for you depend on your obesity severity, your overall health and your willingness to participate in your weight-loss plan.

Dietary changes

Reducing calories and practicing healthier eating habits are vital to overcoming obesity. Although you may lose weight quickly at first, steady weight loss over the long term is considered the safest way to lose weight and the best way to keep it off permanently.

There is no best weight-loss diet. Choose one that includes healthy foods that you feel will work for you. Dietary changes to treat obesity include:

  • Cutting calories.The key to weight loss is reducing how many calories you take in. The first step is to review your typical eating and drinking habits to see how many calories you normally consume and where you can cut back. You and your doctor can decide how many calories you need to take in each day to lose weight, but a typical amount is 1,200 to 1,500 calories for women and 1,500 to 1,800 for men.
  • Feeling full on less.Some foods — such as desserts, candies, fats and processed foods — contain a lot of calories for a small portion. In contrast, fruits and vegetables provide a larger portion size with fewer calories. By eating larger portions of foods that have fewer calories, you reduce hunger pangs, take in fewer calories and feel better about your meal, which contributes to how satisfied you feel overall.
  • Making healthier choices.To make your overall diet healthier, eat more plant-based foods, such as fruits, vegetables and whole grains. Also emphasize lean sources of protein — such as beans, lentils and soy — and lean meats. If you like fish, try to include fish twice a week. Limit salt and added sugar. Eat small amounts of fats, and make sure they come from heart-healthy sources, such as olive, canola and nut oils.
  • Restricting certain foods.Certain diets limit the amount of a particular food group, such as high-carbohydrate or full-fat foods. Ask your doctor which diet plans are effective and which might be helpful for you. Drinking sugar-sweetened beverages is a sure way to consume more calories than you intended. Limiting these drinks or eliminating them altogether is a good place to start cutting calories.
  • Meal replacements.These plans suggest replacing one or two meals with their products — such as low-calorie shakes or meal bars — and eat healthy snacks and a healthy, balanced third meal that's low in fat and calories. In the short term, this type of diet can help you lose weight. But these diets likely won't teach you how to change your overall lifestyle. So you may have to stay on the diet if you want to keep your weight off.

Be wary of quick fixes. You may be tempted by fad diets that promise fast and easy weight loss. The reality, however, is that there are no magic foods or quick fixes. Fad diets may help in the short term, but the long-term results don't appear to be any better than other diets.

Similarly, you may lose weight on a crash diet, but you're likely to regain it when you stop the diet. To lose weight — and keep it off — you must adopt healthy-eating habits that you can maintain over time.

Exercise and activity

Increased physical activity or exercise is an essential part of obesity treatment:

(Video) Obesity | Causes of Obesity | Diagnosis and Treatment of Obesity | Obesity treatment

  • Exercise.People with obesity need to get at least 150 minutes a week of moderate-intensity physical activity to prevent further weight gain or to maintain the loss of a modest amount of weight. You probably will need to gradually increase the amount you exercise as your endurance and fitness improve.
  • Keep moving.Even though regular aerobic exercise is the most efficient way to burn calories and shed excess weight, any extra movement helps burn calories. Park farther from store entrances and take the stairs instead of the elevator. A pedometer can track how many steps you take over the course of a day. Many people try to reach 10,000 steps every day. Gradually increase the number of steps you take daily to reach that goal.

Behavior changes

A behavior modification program can help you make lifestyle changes and lose weight and keep it off. Steps to take include examining your current habits to find out what factors, stresses or situations may have contributed to your obesity.

  • Counseling.Talking with a mental health professional can help address emotional and behavioral issues related to eating. Therapy can help you understand why you overeat and learn healthy ways to cope with anxiety. You can also learn how to monitor your diet and activity, understand eating triggers, and cope with food cravings. Counseling can be one-on-one or in a group.
  • Support groups.You can find camaraderie and understanding in support groups where others share similar challenges with obesity. Check with your doctor, local hospitals or commercial weight-loss programs for support groups in your area.

Weight-loss medication

Weight-loss medications are meant to be used along with diet, exercise and behavior changes, not instead of them. Before selecting a medication for you, your doctor will consider your health history, as well as possible side effects.

The most commonly used medications approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of obesity include:

  • Bupropion-naltrexone (Contrave)
  • Liraglutide (Saxenda)
  • Orlistat (Alli, Xenical)
  • Phentermine-topiramate (Qsymia)

Weight-loss medications may not work for everyone, and the effects may wane over time. When you stop taking a weight-loss medication, you may regain much or all of the weight you lost.

Endoscopic procedures for weight loss

These types of procedures don't require any incisions in the skin. After you are under anesthesia, flexible tubes and tools are inserted through the mouth and down the throat into the stomach. Common procedures include:

  • Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty.This procedure involves placing stitches in the stomach to reduce the amount of food and liquid the stomach can hold at one time. Over time, eating and drinking less helps the typical person lose weight.
  • Intragastric balloon for weight loss.In this procedure, doctors place a small balloon into the stomach. The balloon is then filled with water to reduce the amount of space in the stomach, so you'll feel full eating less food.

Weight-loss surgery

Also known as bariatric surgery, weight-loss surgery limits the amount of food you're able to comfortably eat or decreases the absorption of food and calories. However, this can also result in nutritional and vitamin deficiencies.

Common weight-loss surgeries include:

  • Adjustable gastric banding.In this procedure, an inflatable band separates the stomach into two pouches. The surgeon pulls the band tight, like a belt, to create a tiny channel between the two pouches. The band keeps the opening from expanding and is generally designed to stay in place permanently.
  • Gastric bypass surgery.In gastric bypass (Roux-en-Y), the surgeon creates a small pouch at the top of the stomach. The small intestine is then cut a short distance below the main stomach and connected to the new pouch. Food and liquid flow directly from the pouch into this part of the intestine, bypassing most of the stomach.
  • Gastric sleeve.In this procedure, part of the stomach is removed, creating a smaller reservoir for food. It's a less complicated surgery than gastric bypass.

Weight-loss success after surgery depends on your commitment to making lifelong changes in your eating and exercise habits.

(Video) Obesity: What is it and what causes it? | Obesity Made Simple

Other treatments

Other treatments for obesity include:

  • Hydrogels.Available by prescription, these edible capsules contain tiny particles that absorb water and enlarge in the stomach, to help you feel full. The capsules are taken before meals and are passed through the intestines as stool.
  • Vagal nerve blockade.This involves implanting a device under the skin of the abdomen that sends intermittent electrical pulses to the abdominal vagus nerve, which tells the brain when the stomach feels empty or full.
  • Gastric aspirate.In this procedure, a tube is placed through the abdomen into the stomach. A portion of the stomach contents are drained out after each meal.

More Information

  • Obesity care at Mayo Clinic
  • Bariatric surgery
  • Biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD/DS)
  • Gastric bypass (Roux-en-Y)
  • Intragastric balloon
  • Sleeve gastrectomy

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Clinical trials

Explore Mayo Clinic studiestesting new treatments, interventions and tests as a means to prevent, detect, treat or manage this condition.

Lifestyle and home remedies

Your effort to overcome obesity is more likely to be successful if you follow strategies at home in addition to your formal treatment plan. These can include:

  • Learning about your condition.Education about obesity can help you learn more about why you developed obesity and what you can do about it. You may feel more empowered to take control and stick to your treatment plan. Read reputable self-help books and consider talking about them with your doctor or therapist.
  • Setting realistic goals.When you have to lose a lot of weight, you may set goals that are unrealistic, such as trying to lose too much too fast. Don't set yourself up for failure. Set daily or weekly goals for exercise and weight loss. Make small changes in your diet instead of attempting drastic changes that you're not likely to stick with for the long haul.
  • Sticking to your treatment plan.Changing a lifestyle you may have lived with for many years can be difficult. Be honest with your doctor, therapist or other health care professionals if you find your activity or eating goals slipping. You can work together to come up with new ideas or new approaches.
  • Enlisting support.Get your family and friends on board with your weight-loss goals. Surround yourself with people who will support you and help you, not sabotage your efforts. Make sure they understand how important weight loss is to your health. You might also want to join a weight-loss support group.
  • Keeping a record.Keep a food and activity log. This record can help you remain accountable for your eating and exercise habits. You can discover behavior that may be holding you back and, conversely, what works well for you. You can also use your log to track other important health parameters such as blood pressure and cholesterol levels and overall fitness.

Alternative medicine

Numerous dietary supplements that promise to help you shed weight quickly are available. The long-term effectiveness and safety of these products are often questionable.

(Video) Obesity- Diagnosis and Treatment

Coping and support

Talk to your doctor or therapist about improving your coping skills and consider these tips to cope with obesity and your weight-loss efforts:

  • Journal.Write in a journal to express pain, anger, fear or other emotions.
  • Connect.Don't become isolated. Try to participate in regular activities and get together with family or friends periodically.
  • Join.Join a support group so that you can connect with others facing similar challenges.
  • Focus.Stay focused on your goals. Overcoming obesity is an ongoing process. Stay motivated by keeping your goals in mind. Remind yourself that you're responsible for managing your condition and working toward your goals.
  • Relax.Learn relaxation and stress management. Learning to recognize stress and developing stress management and relaxation skills can help you gain control of unhealthy eating habits.

Preparing for your appointment

Talking to your doctor openly and honestly about your weight concerns is one of the best things you can do for your health. In some cases, you may be referred to an obesity specialist — if one is available in your area. You may also be referred to a behavioral counselor or dietitian.

What you can do

Being an active participant in your care is important. One way to do this is by preparing for your appointment. Think about your needs and goals for treatment. Also, write down a list of questions to ask. These questions may include:

  • What eating or activity habits are likely contributing to my health concerns and weight gain?
  • What can I do about the challenges I face in managing my weight?
  • Do I have other health problems that are caused by obesity?
  • Should I see a dietitian?
  • Should I see a behavioral counselor with expertise in weight management?
  • What are the treatment options for obesity and my other health problems?
  • Is weight-loss intervention an option for me?

Be sure to let your doctor know about any medical conditions you have and about any medications, vitamins or supplements that you take.

What to expect from your doctor

During your appointment, your doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions about your weight, eating, activity, mood and thoughts, and any symptoms you might have. You may be asked such questions as:

  • How much did you weigh in high school?
  • What life events may have been associated with weight gain?
  • What and how much do you eat in a typical day?
  • How much activity do you get in a typical day?
  • During what periods of your life did you gain weight?
  • What are the factors that you believe affect your weight?
  • How is your daily life affected by your weight?
  • What diets or treatments have you tried to lose weight?
  • What are your weight-loss goals?
  • Are you ready to make changes in your lifestyle to lose weight?
  • What do you think might prevent you from losing weight?

What you can do in the meantime

If you have time before your scheduled appointment, you can help prepare for the appointment by keeping a diet diary for two weeks prior to the appointment and by recording how many steps you take in a day by using a step counter (pedometer).

You can also begin to make choices that will help you start to lose weight, including:

  • Making healthy changes in your diet.Include more fruits, vegetables and whole grains in your diet. Begin to reduce portion sizes.
  • Increasing your activity level.Try to get up and move around your home more frequently. Start gradually if you aren't in good shape or aren't used to exercising. Even a 10-minute daily walk can help. If you have any health conditions or are over a certain age — over 40 for men and over 50 for women — wait until you've talked to your doctor before you start a new exercise program.

By Mayo Clinic Staff

(Video) Obesity | Causes of Obesity | Diagnosis and Treatment of Obesity | Obesity treatment

Sept. 02, 2021


How is obesity diagnosed and treated? ›

Your doctor will check your body mass index (BMI). A BMI of 30 or higher is considered obesity. Numbers higher than 30 increase health risks even more. Your BMI should be checked at least once a year because it can help determine your overall health risks and what treatments may be appropriate.

How do you diagnose obesity? ›

Using Body Mass Index (BMI)

The most common way to determine if a person is affected by overweight or obesity is to calculate BMI, which is an estimate of body fat that compares a person's weight to their height.

What is the most common treatment for obesity? ›

Common treatments for overweight and obesity include losing weight through healthy eating, being more physically active, and making other changes to your usual habits. Weight-management programs may help some people lose weight or keep from regaining lost weight.

What is obesity definition and diagnosis? ›

Overview. Overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that presents a risk to health. A body mass index (BMI) over 25 is considered overweight, and over 30 is obese.

How is obesity treated medically? ›

Prescription medicines

One of the most commonly prescribed medicines is orlistat. Orlistat blocks about 30% of the fat you eat as food travels through your digestive system. This medicine may cause frequent, oily bowel movements. But if you cut back on the amount of fat you eat, symptoms often get better.

What is the first line approach to the treatment of obesity? ›

Lifestyle modification is the first step in weight management. Lifestyle modification consists of a healthy diet, exercise, ensuring sleep quality, and stress mitigation. Up to now, dietary guidelines have been updated multiple times based on available scientific evidence.

What is the main cause of obesity? ›

Many factors influence body weight-genes, though the effect is small, and heredity is not destiny; prenatal and early life influences; poor diets; too much television watching; too little physical activity and sleep; and our food and physical activity environment.

What are 4 symptoms of obesity? ›

Day-to-day problems related to obesity include:
  • breathlessness.
  • increased sweating.
  • snoring.
  • difficulty doing physical activity.
  • often feeling very tired.
  • joint and back pain.
  • low confidence and self-esteem.
  • feeling isolated.

What are the stages of obesity? ›

Body Mass Index
  • Overweight (not obese), if BMI is 25.0 to 29.9.
  • Class 1 (low-risk) obesity, if BMI is 30.0 to 34.9.
  • Class 2 (moderate-risk) obesity, if BMI is 35.0 to 39.9.
  • Class 3 (high-risk) obesity, if BMI is equal to or greater than 40.0.
Apr 17, 2021

What are 3 ways to overcome obesity? ›

Choosing healthier foods (whole grains, fruits and vegetables, healthy fats and protein sources) and beverages. Limiting unhealthy foods (refined grains and sweets, potatoes, red meat, processed meat) and beverages (sugary drinks) Increasing physical activity. Limiting television time, screen time, and other “sit time”

What is the latest treatment for obesity? ›

Tirzepatide, for treatment of adults with obesity, is on the fast track for FDA's OK There are signs that obesity drugs are improving. A new drug being "fast-tracked" for FDA approval has been shown to help users lose more than a fifth of their body weight.

Why is obesity so hard to treat? ›

There is an evolutionary basis to our current predicament: Our bodies have evolved in a world where high-calorie food has historically been scarce and valuable, with starvation a constant danger. This is one reason obesity is so difficult to treat; our bodies are wired to protect our weight.

What are the 6 types of obesity? ›

Here's what you need to know:
  • Obesity arising from diet: Eating the wrong kinds of food and/or eating too much food and pairing that with too little activity can lead to this kind of obesity. ...
  • Nervous stomach: ...
  • Gluten free food: ...
  • Genetically caused obesity: ...
  • Alcohol consumption related obesity: ...
  • Sedentary obesity:
Apr 28, 2022

Is obesity considered a disability? ›

Most courts that have considered the issue have concluded that obesity alone is not a disability, but obesity resulting from an underlying medical condition – such as thyroid disease – may be.

What is the difference between obesity and overweight? ›

For adults, WHO defines overweight and obesity as follows: overweight is a BMI greater than or equal to 25; and. obesity is a BMI greater than or equal to 30.

What if obesity is not treated? ›

High blood pressure and high cholesterol which are risk factors for heart disease. Type 2 diabetes. Breathing problems, such as asthma and sleep apnea.

What is the life expectancy of someone with obesity? ›

One study found that obesity shortens life expectancy in individuals with moderate obesity (30 to 35 BMI) by three years, while patients with severe obesity (40+ BMI) may take as much as ten years off their life.

How fast can an obese person lose weight? ›

For example, someone who is morbidly obese may be able to safely lose around 11 pounds a week, while someone closer to a healthy weight range may only lose as little as 200 grams a week as they have less weight to lose.

What are four treatments for obesity? ›

What are the treatments for obesity?
  • Dietary changes.
  • Physical activity.
  • Medications.
  • Surgery.
  • Hormonal treatment.
  • Browning white fat cells.
  • Health risks and weight.
  • Takeaway.
Nov 14, 2018

What lab tests are done for obesity? ›

Standard laboratory studies in the evaluation of obesity should include the following:
  • Fasting lipid panel.
  • Liver function studies.
  • Thyroid function tests.
  • Fasting glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)
Apr 26, 2023

What are the four pillars of obesity medicine? ›

Our four pillars of clinical obesity treatment are nutrition, physical activity, behavior, and medication. These pillars are represented in the four colors in our logo. When combined and personalized, treatment plans involving the four pillars help patients lose weight and achieve better overall health.

What causes big stomach in females? ›

If you eat too much and exercise too little, you're likely to carry excess weight — including belly fat. Also, your muscle mass might diminish slightly with age, while fat increases.

What is the root of overweight? ›

It's caused when extra calories are stored in the body as fat. If you consume high amounts of energy, particularly found in high fat and high sugar foods, and do not use all of the energy through physical activity, much of the extra energy will be stored in the body as fat.

Can you be obese and healthy? ›

Is it possible to be overweight and healthy? Silvana Pannain, MD: Yes, you can be overweight and metabolically healthy. At the same time, we know that obesity is a disease that affects the body in many different ways. Thirteen types of cancer and 200 other health conditions are related to obesity.

What are 3 diseases that are linked to obesity? ›

Health Effects of Overweight and Obesity
  • All-causes of death (mortality).
  • High blood pressure (hypertension).
  • High LDL cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, or high levels of triglycerides (dyslipidemia).
  • Type 2 diabetes.
  • Coronary heart disease.
  • Stroke.
  • Gallbladder disease.

What is the healthiest way for a person to lose weight? ›

One of the best ways to lose body fat is through steady aerobic exercise — such as brisk walking — for at least 30 minutes most days of the week. Some people may require more physical activity than this to lose weight and maintain that weight loss. Any extra movement helps burn calories.

How do you diagnose obesity and overweight? ›

Body mass index (BMI) is widely used as a simple and reliable way of finding out whether a person is a healthy weight for their height. For most adults, having a BMI of 18.5 to 24.9 is considered to be a healthy weight. A BMI of 25 to 29.9 is considered to be overweight, and a BMI over 30 is considered to be obese.

How can obesity be prevented or treated? ›

Choosing healthier foods (whole grains, fruits and vegetables, healthy fats and protein sources) and beverages. Limiting unhealthy foods (refined grains and sweets, potatoes, red meat, processed meat) and beverages (sugary drinks) Increasing physical activity. Limiting television time, screen time, and other “sit time”

What is the gold standard for diagnosing obesity? ›

BMI is the most widely-used measure of obesity and is defined as weight in kg/height in m2.

What blood test shows why you can't lose weight? ›

Estradiol. An estradiol test is an important blood test for weight loss. Estradiol is a hormone produced in the ovary and helps in the development of female secondary sex characteristics. A lack of estradiol has been shown to increase food craving and overeating while reducing the body's ability to burn fat.

What to test for when you can't lose weight? ›

8 Recommended Blood Tests for Weight Loss
  • Complete Liver Profile. The blood tests that come under the liver profile or liver function tests are ALT, AST, and GGT. ...
  • Lipid Profile. ...
  • Thyroid Hormone Test or a Thyroid Blood Test. ...
  • Diabetes or Insulin Profile Test. ...
  • Iron Tests. ...
  • Vitamin D and Vitamin B12 Tests.
Jul 21, 2022

What medical conditions cause obesity? ›

Health Conditions and Medications

Some hormone problems may cause overweight and obesity, such as underactive thyroid, Cushing syndrome and polycystic ovary syndrome. Certain medicines also may cause weight gain, including some corticosteroids, antidepressants, and seizure medicines.

What disease is obesity caused by? ›

Health Effects of Overweight and Obesity
  • All-causes of death (mortality).
  • High blood pressure (hypertension).
  • High LDL cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, or high levels of triglycerides (dyslipidemia).
  • Type 2 diabetes.
  • Coronary heart disease.
  • Stroke.
  • Gallbladder disease.


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